Petroleum Seismics for Geologists and Geophysicists

Course Title : Petroleum Seismics for Geologists and Geophysicists

Course Duration : 5 days

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Course Description

The course is aimed at delivering the physical concepts involved in the application of seismic methods to petroleum exploration. At the outset, the course introduces the basics of hydrocarbon exploration in a regional setup including gravity, magnetic and  refraction surveying.  The next stage of the course focuses on seismic wave propagation, ray theory, attenuation and other propagation mechanisms associated with it. These principles are employed in the next section for developing an understanding of field data acquisition in land and marine environments. Seismic data processing schemes are then introduced to explain the significance associated with seismic processing stages to obtain a good seismic section. The subsequent section on seismic interpretation is focused on introducing the method of translating the observed seismic sections to geological information critical to hydrocarbon exploration. The next stage of the course focuses on 3-D Seismics  for reservoir development and monitoring. Special interpretation methods using Amplitude Variation with Offset and Spectral Decomposition methods will be discussed in the concluding session of the course.

Day 1
  • Introduction
  • Exploration for Hydrocarbons – The Big Picture
  • Reconnaissance Survey for Regional mapping – Refraction, Gravity, Magnetic
  • Gravity & Magnetic Method for Basement Mapping
  • Regional Seismic Reflection Survey
  • Exploration Objectives
  • Seismic Method: Physical Principles
    • Stress, Strain, Particle Velocity and Wave Velocity
    • Wave Equation
    • Wave Propagation, Compressional, and Shear Wave
    • Surface Waves – Raleigh Wave, Love Wave
    • Refraction, Reflection, and Diffraction
    • Travel-time plots
    • Multiples
    • Reflection From Multiple Interfaces
    • Reflection Time – Zero Offset, Non-Zero Offset
    • Velocity and Density
    • Impedance and Impedance Contrast
    • Reflection Strength from Interfaces
    • Reflection Polarity & Character
    • Effects of Medium on Wave Propagation
    • Spherical Spreading,
    • Absorption
    • Partitioning of energy at an interface, Zoeppritz’s equations
Day 2
  • Seismic Signal
  • Waveform – Amplitude, Power, Energy
  • Addition of Sinusoids, Harmonics – Fourier Series
  • Amplitude Spectra, Phase Spectra
  • Wavelet Phase: Minimum Phase, Maximum Phase, Zero Phase
  • Auto-correlation, Cross-correlation, and Convolution
  • Signal Sampling: Nyquist Frequency
  • Synthetic Seismogram
  • Seismic Data Acquisition
    • Seismic Source Characteristics
    • Land Data Acquisition
  • Seismic Source
  • Receiver: Geophone
  • Cable, Acquisition system
  • Line Layout, Navigation
  • Field Design Criteria
    • Marine Data Acquisition
  • Seismic Source
  • Receiver: Hydrophone
  • Streamer, Acquisition system
  • Line Layout, Navigation
  • Field Design Criteria
  • Concept of Common Depth Point Shooting, Multiplicity
  • Horizontal Reflector, Normal Move Out
  • Noise in Field Data
  • Ground Roll Suppression and Geophone Arrays
  • Seismic Resolution: Horizontal and Vertical
  • Seismic Data Processing
  • Importance of  Good Seismic Processing Flow
  • Practical Seismic Data Processing: Pre-Stack and Post-Stack
  • Pre Processing
  • Geometry, Quality Control
  • Editing Muting, Sorting
  • Gain Adjustment
  • Prestack Processing
  • Filtering: Band Pass, FK Filtering
  • Deconvolution, Spiking Deconvolution, Predictive Deconvolution, Multiple Removal, Wavelet Shaping
  • Stacking Velocity Analysis: Constant Velocity Analysis, Constant Velocity Gather, Semblance, Velocity Spectrum
  • Residual Statics
  • Stacking
  • Post Stack Processing
  • Deconvolution
  • Filtering: Time Variant Filtering
  • Display, Time Variant Gain Plot
  • Velocity Modeling: Seismic Tomography
  • Migration: Time and Depth Migration
    • Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) migration
    • Kirchoff (diffraction-stack) Migration
    • Finite difference method of Wave Equation Migration
  • Prestack and Post Stack Migration

Seismic Data Interpretation

  • Seismic Measurements and Geology
  • Density, Compressional and Shear Wave Velocity and Geology
  • Generation of hydrocarbons and migration; Types of traps
  • Fundamental Geophysical Assumptions
  • Collecting and examining data
  • Picking Reflections
  • Mapping reflection horizons
  • Integrating Well data into interpretation
  • Recognizing Lithology
  • Clays and silts; clastics, carbonates, salt, basement, igneous and volcanic rocks
  • Reflections associated with hydrocarbon and diagentic effects
  • Seismic Expression of Structural Features
  • Faults
  • Folds
  • Reefs
  • Unconformities
  • Channels
  • Seismic Expression of Stratigraphic Traps
  • Contouring and Mapping
  • Grid contouring, computer contouring, isopachs
Day 5
  • 3-D-Seismic Methods
  • Data Acquisition and, Processing
  • Display of 3-D data
  • 3-D data interpretation
  • 3-D Seismic Case Studies
  • 4-D Seismics, Reservoir Monitoring
Special Topics
  • Bright Spot, Dim Spot
  • AVO – Rock Physics and Fluid Replacement
  • Amplitude Variation With offset Analysis
  • AVO Modeling
  • AVO Cross-Plotting methods
  • Inversion of AVO attributes
  • Seismic Attributes
  • Reservoir Characterization through Seismic Attributes
  • Spectral decomposition
  • Pitfalls in Seismic Interpretation

  • Teaching faculty  hold Ph.D  with three  decades of  combined experience in academia and oil industry.
  • They teach professional courses all over the globe  for oil and mineral industry.
  • Contact for more details.

Keywords: Petroleum, Gas, Oil, Hydrocarbon, Rock, Geology, Geophysics, Geoscience, Geologist, Geophysicist, Manager, Gravity, Magnetic, Seismic, Well logging, Welllog, Seismic attributes, Mechanical properties, Conventional resources , Unconventional resources, Shale oil, Shale gas