Seismic Data Interpretation for Geologists and Geophysicists

Course Title : Seismic Data Interpretation for Geologists and Geophysicists

Course Duration : 5 days

Contact to schedule these courses at your institution.

Course Description:

The course is aimed at imparting working knowledge in seismic data interpretation for geologists and geophysicists. At the outset, the course introduces briefly seismic wave propagation, ray theory, attenuation and other propagation mechanisms associated with wave propagation,  field data acquisition, and processing in land and marine environments. The next section discusses seismic velocities (Vp, Vs), Seismic resolution, the response from thin beds, tuning and seismic amplitudes. The subsequent section on seismic interpretation is focused on introducing the method of translating the observed seismic sections to geological information critical to hydrocarbon exploration. The next part of the course focuses on prestack data analysis for AVO studies.  Quantitative information extraction from prestack and post-stack seismic inversions are discussed in the next unit.  Application of seismic attribute analysis for structure/stratigraphic mapping,  and reservoir characterization are discussed in the next unit along with spectral decomposition methods for thin bed mapping. The course will be summarized by discussing interpretation pitfalls and how to use integrated data interpretation approach overcome some of the pitfalls.

Day 1


  • Exploration for Hydrocarbons – The Big Picture
  • Reconnaissance Survey for Regional mapping – Refraction, Gravity, Magnetic
    • Wave Propagation, Compressional, and Shear Wave
    • Refraction, Reflection, and Diffraction
    • Reflection Time – Zero Offset, Non-Zero Offset
    • Reflection Strength from Interfaces
    • Reflection Polarity & Character
    • Partitioning of energy at an interface, Zoeppritz’s equations
  • Seismic Data Acquisition
    • Seismic Source Characteristics
    • Land Data Acquisition
    • Marine Data Acquisition
    • Concept of Common Depth Point Shooting, Multiplicity
  • Seismic Data Processing
  • Practical Seismic Data Processing: Pre-Stack and Post-Stack
  • Pre Processing
  • Prestack Processing
  • Filtering: Band Pass, FK Filtering
  • Deconvolution: Spiking and  Predictive Deconvolution,
  • Stacking Velocity Analysis, Residual Statics
  • Stacking
  • Post Stack Processing : Deconvolution, Filtering, Migration
Day 2

Seismic Data Interpretation

Seismic Velocities – Geological effects

  • Seismic Resolution – Horizontal and Vertical
  • Generation of hydrocarbons and migration; Types of traps
  • Fundamental Geophysical Assumptions – Reflection
  • Seismic Amplitude – Geological effects
  • 3D Seismic Data Interpretation – Structure
  • Picking Reflections, Mapping reflection horizons – Exercise
  • Integrating Well data into interpretation
  • Recognizing Probable Lithology: Clays and silts; clastics, carbonates, salt, basement, igneous and volcanic rocks
  • Reflections associated with hydrocarbon and diagentic effects
  • Seismic Expression of Structural Features
  • Faults, Folds, Reefs, Unconformities, Channels
  • Seismic Expression of Stratigraphic Traps
  • Interpretation Exercises


Contouring and Mapping – Principles and Method

  • Contouring Algorithm
  • Exercise in Hand Contouring
  • Grid contouring, computer contouring, isopach map
  • Contouring Pitfalls

Quantitative Geophysical Interpretation

Amplitude Variation With Offset (AVO)

  • Partitioning of Energy  at an interface
  • Rock Physics, Fluid substitution
  • Rock Physis and Lithology
  • AVO Cross Plotting
  • AVO Modeling / Inversion

Seismic Inversion

Basics of Geophysical Inversion

  • Seismic Amplitude
  • Recursive Inversion
  • Sparse Spike Inversion
  • Model Based Inversion
  • Pre-stack Amplitude Inversion
  • Elastic Impedance Inversion
  • Travel-time inversion – Tomography
Day 5

Seismic Interpretation  Tools

Spectral Decomposition

  • Seismic Attributes –Mapping Structure
  • Seismic Attributes – Mapping Stratigraphy
  • Seismic Attributes and Reservoir Characterization
  • Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators
  • 4-D Seismics,   Reservoir Monitoring
  • Pitfalls in Seismic Interpretation
  • Integrated Data Interpretation Approach

  • Teaching faculty  hold Ph.D  with three  decades of  combined experience in academia and oil industry.
  • They teach professional courses all over the globe for oil and mineral industry.

Contact to schedule these courses at your institution.

Keywords: Petroleum, Gas, Oil, Hydrocarbon, Rock, Geology, Geophysics, Geoscience, Geologist, Geophysicist, Manager, Gravity, Magnetic, Seismic, Well logging, Welllog, Seismic attributes, Mechanical properties, Conventional resources , Unconventional resources, Shale oil, Shale gas