Seismic Interpretation and Seismic Attribute analysis for Reservoir Engineers

Course Title : Seismic Interpretation and Seismic Attribute analysis for Reservoir Engineers

Course Duration : 5 days

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Course Description

The course is aimed at imparting working knowledge in seismic data interpretation for reservoir engineers. At the outset, the course introduces briefly seismic wave theory, attenuation and other propagation mechanisms associated with wave propagation, field data acquisition, and data processing in land and marine environments. The subsequent section on seismic interpretation is focused on introducing the method of translating the observed seismic sections to geological information critical to hydrocarbon exploration. The part of the course focuses on prestack data analysis for AVO studies. Quantitative information extraction from prestack and poststack seismic inversions are discussed in the next unit. In seismic attributes the interpretation phase of the course, attribute expression of structural deformation is investigated followed by attribute expression of clastic and carbonate depositional environments. In the final phase of the course attribute expression of deepwater depositional environment and reservoir heterogeneity are addressed. The course will be summarized by discussing interpretation pitfalls and how to use integrated data interpretation approach overcome some of the pitfalls.

Day 1


  • Exploration for Hydrocarbons – The Big Picture
  • Reconnaissance Survey for Regional mapping – Refraction, Gravity, Magnetic
  • Wave Propagation, Compressional, and Shear Wave
  • Refraction, Reflection, and Diffraction
  • Reflection Time – Zero Offset, Non-Zero Offset
  • Reflection Strength from Interfaces
  • Reflection Polarity & Character
  • Partitioning of energy at an interface, Zoeppritz’s equations
  • Seismic Data Acquisition
  • Seismic Source Characteristics
  • Land Data Acquisition
  • >Marine Data Acquisition
  • Concept of Common Depth Point Shooting, Multiplicity
  • Seismic Data Processing
  • Practical Seismic Data Processing: Pre-Stack and Post-Stack
  • Pre Processing
  • Prestack Processing
  • Filtering: Band Pass, FK Filtering
  • Deconvolution: Spiking and Predictive Deconvolution,
  • Stacking Velocity Analysis, Residual Statics
  • Stacking
  • Post Stack Processing : Deconvolution, Filtering, Migration
Day 2

Seismic Inversion

Seismic Data Interpretation

  • Seismic Resolution – Horizontal and Vertical
  • Generation of hydrocarbons and migration; Types of traps
  • Fundamental Geophysical Assumptions – Reflection
  • Seismic Amplitude – Geological effects
  • 3D Seismic Data Interpretation – Structure
  • Picking Reflections, Mapping reflection horizons – Exercise
  • Integrating Well data into interpretation
  • Recognizing Probable Lithology: Clays and silts; clastics, carbonates, salt, basement, igneous and volcanic rocks
  • Reflections associated with hydrocarbon and diagentic effects
  • Seismic Expression of Structural Features
  • Faults, Folds, Reefs, Unconformities, Channels
  • Seismic Expression of Stratigraphic Traps


Contouring and Mapping – Principles and Method

  • Contouring Algorithm
  • Exercise in Hand Contouring
  • Grid contouring, computer contouring, isopach map
  • Contouring Pitfalls


  • Introduction to seismic attributes
  • Development of seismic attributes – timeline
  • Volumetric dip and azimuth
  • Coherence
  • Volumetric Curvature
  • Lateral Changes in Amplitude
  • Spectral Decomposition
  • Prestack attributes
  • Mapping Structural Features through Seismic Attributes
    • Mapping faults from geometric atrribute volumes
    • Salt domes, Shale ridges, Fractures
Day 5
  • Mapping Structural Features
    • Mapping faults from geometric attribute volumes
    • Salt domes, Shale ridges, Fractures
  • Mapping Clastic Depositional Features
    • Turbidites, Channels, Unconformities
  • Mapping Carbonate Features
    • Reefs, Faults and fractures, Karst and slumps
  • Deepwater depositional environments
    • Pockmarks, Gas chimney, Shale dewatering
  • Reservoir heterogeneity
    • Estimation of porosity and thickness
    • Reservoir compartmentalization
    • Fracture permeability
  • Review